Deep focus shots appear off and on through the silent era, mostly on day exteriors or day interiors lit with a lot of sunlight. "Greed" (1925) for example has some deep focus shots and some of Buster Keaton's gags relied on the foreground and background action being seen at the same time in relatively similar focus (there's a joke in "Steamboat Bill Jr.", 1928, where Keaton, established as an East Coast dandy, visits his tough steamboat captain father in jail -- he brings a loaf of bread with tools inside so the father can escape from jail but he shows up soaking wet from a storm with an umbrella blown backwards and is framed in the doorway of the jail with his father in the foreground turning to face the camera in disgust at his inept son, who then has to get his attention to the loaf of bread he is carrying.)
James Wong Howe claims to have used deep focus for most of "Transatlantic" (1931) but what he really did was use a 25mm lens for most of a movie for the first time, giving him a somewhat deeper focus but not true deep focus in terms of having things in focus from near foreground to background. During the hype over "Kane" and its deep focus look, many people like Howe or Hitchcock were defending the use of selective focus to draw your attention to the subject.
Toland himself had a few deep focus shots in "Grapes of Wrath" and then more in "The Long Voyage Home" (both 1940) as a run-up to what he'd do more dramatically in "Citizen Kane". Some deep focus shots in "Citizen Kane" are composites, some in-camera and some in an optical printer.