Unfortunately a lot of these filters are similar -- asking for more clarity about the effect is a bit like describing exactly how much softer 216 will make a light compared to Light Grid Cloth, there's a limit. And some filters are more or less designed to compete with a similar filter made by a different manufacturer - for example, Tiffen made ProMist based on the mist filter design of the Wilson SupaFrost, then Schneider made White Frost as their version of the ProMist. Schneider DigiCons are similar to Tiffen UltraCons other than the fact that they have an element that darkens highlights, similar to Tiffen's older SoftCon filter, which is based around their older LowCon design.
A few diffusions are combinations of two specific diffusion products -- for example, a Hollywood Black Magic is a combination of a 1/8 Black Frost + degrees of HD Classic Soft. Black Satin diffusion is a combination of, I'm not sure, something like a 1/2 GlimmerGlass + degrees of Black Diffusion-FX. Basically combinations of a "mist" filter with a more traditional "softening" filter.
The filters designed to soften detail as opposed to create a misty effect, use some sort of pattern in the glass that bends, defocuses the light while the clear areas allow sharp detail to pass through. The size, shape, and distribution of that pattern creates its particular artifacts around lights. The Schneider Classic Softs are probably the most obvious example of that, having fairly large dimples in the glass that create odd effects like a circle around some points of light on some strengths at some focal lengths, or a blurred fringe edge around a bright area.
Mist filters use even tinier elements (compared to the diffusion filter patterns) of some sort of particulate matter that causes light to scatter. There is also some softening involved as an effect too. So when you get halation around a light source like when using a Classic Soft, what you are seeing is a blurred version of the point of light overlaid on top of the sharp image of that same point, whereas with a mist filter that light source in the frame is hitting a lot more tiny specks of something that catch the light, causing a glow.
LowCons, DigiCons, etc. are variations of that, but use specks that soften less but haze up more all around, less localized around the light in the frame. With UltraCons, the specks are so tiny, finely ground and distributed, that when light hits the filter, there is more of just an overall haze and lifting of the blacks without any glow around lights and with minimal softening.